The reliability of Antarctic tropospheric pressure and temperature in the latest global reanalyses

first_imgIn this study, surface and radiosonde data from staffed Antarctic observation stations are compared tooutput from five reanalyses [Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis(ERA-40), ECMWF Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim), Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25), and Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA)] over three decades spanning 1979–2008. Bias and year-to-year correlation between the reanalyses and observations are assessed for four variables: mean sea level pressure (MSLP), near-surface air temperature (Ts), 500-hPa geopotential height (H500), and 500-hPa temperature (T500).It was found that CFSR andMERRAare of a sufficiently high resolution for the height of the orography tobe accurately reproduced at coastal observation stations. Progressively larger negative Ts biases at thesecoastal stations are apparent for reanalyses in order of decreasing resolution. However, orography height biascannot explain large winter warm biases in CFSR, JRA-25, andMERRA(11.18, 10.28, and 7.98C, respectively)at Amundsen–Scott and Vostok, which have been linked to problems with representing the surface energybalance. Linear trends in the annual-mean T500 andH500 averaged over Antarctica as a whole were found to be mostreliable in CFSR, ERA-Interim, and MERRA, none of which show significant trends over the period 1979–2008. In contrast JRA-25 shows significant negative trends over 1979–2008 and ERA-40 gives significantpositive trends during the 1980s (evident in both T500 andH500). Comparison to observations indicates that thepositive trend in ERA-40 is spurious. At the smaller spatial scale of individual stations all five reanalyses have some spurious trends. However, ERA-Interim was found to be the most reliable for MSLP andH500 trends atstation locations.last_img read more

Subduction-modified oceanic crust mixed with a depleted mantle reservoir in the sources of the Karoo continental flood basalt province

first_imgThe great majority of continental flood basalts (CFBs) have a marked lithospheric geochemical signature, suggesting derivation from the continental lithosphere, or contamination by it. Here we present new Pb and Os isotopic data and review previously published major element, trace element, mineral chemical, and Sr and Nd isotopic data for geochemically unusual mafic and ultramafic dikes located in the Antarctic segment (Ahlmannryggen, western Dronning Maud Land) of the Karoo CFB province. Some of the dikes show evidence of minor contamination with continental crust, but the least contaminated dikes exhibit depleted mantle – like initial εNd (+9) and 187Os/188Os (0.1244–0.1251) at 180 Ma. In contrast, their initial Sr and Pb isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7035–0.7062, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.2–18.4, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.49–15.52, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.7–37.9 at 180 Ma) are more enriched than expected for depleted mantle, and the major element and mineral chemical evidence indicate contribution from (recycled) pyroxenite sources. Our Sr, Nd, Pb, and Os isotopic and trace element modeling indicate mixed peridotite–pyroxenite sources that contain ∼10–30% of seawater-altered and subduction-modified MORB with a recycling age of less than 1.0 Ga entrained in a depleted Os-rich peridotite matrix. Such a source would explain the unusual combination of elevated initial 87Sr/86Sr and Pb isotopic ratios and relative depletion in LILE, U, Th, Pb and LREE, high initial εNd, and low initial 187Os/188Os. Although the sources of the dikes probably did not play a major part in the generation of the Karoo CFBs in general, different kind of recycled source components (e.g., sediment-influenced) would be more difficult to distinguish from lithospheric CFB geochemical signatures. In addition to underlying continental lithosphere, the involvement of recycled sources in causing the apparent lithospheric geochemical affinity of CFBs should thus be carefully assessed in every case.last_img read more

Scientific challenges and present capabilities in underwater robotic vehicle design and navigation for oceanographic exploration under-ice.

first_imgThis paper reviews the scientific motivation and challenges, development, and use of underwater robotic vehicles designed for use in ice-covered waters, with special attention paid to the navigation systems employed for under-ice deployments. Scientific needs for routine access under fixed and moving ice by underwater robotic vehicles are reviewed in the contexts of geology and geophysics, biology, sea ice and climate, ice shelves, and seafloor mapping. The challenges of under-ice vehicle design and navigation are summarized. The paper reviews all known under-ice robotic vehicles and their associated navigation systems, categorizing them by vehicle type (tethered, untethered, hybrid, and glider) and by the type of ice they were designed for (fixed glacial or sea ice and moving sea ice). © 2020 by the authors.last_img read more

O.C. Beachgoers Tread Lightly on New Sand, Shells and Stone

first_imgPebbles and shells mix with sand on the rebuilt beach at 52nd Street on Thursday, June 4. Pebbles and shells mix with sand on the rebuilt beach at 52nd Street on Thursday, June 4.To most beachgoers, the height and width of the rebuilt beaches on the south end of Ocean City are mighty fine. The sand is not.Much of the replenished sand is grainy and riddled with small pebbles and broken seashells —not as fine as the native sand at the top of the beach or at the water’s edge.Jonathan Gricco of Bellmawr flys a kite with his nephew, Derek Wilson, 8, on the beach near 39th Street.“I’ve noticed,” said Jonathan Gricco, 37, of Bellmawr, Camden County, who was vacationing last week in Ocean City. “I cut my foot at least once. There’s just shells everywhere.”Gricco was on the beach near 39th Street, flying a colorful kite with his nephew, 8-year-old Derek Wilson.“We’re used to fine sand with a shell here or there, but this is, every step you take you’re stepping on broken shells,” Gricco said, looking down at his bare feet.Wilson said he wasn’t bothered by the rough quality of the sand.“I’m used to it,” he said with a smile.The rebuilt beaches are part of a $57 million effort by the federal Army Corps of Engineers to reconstruct eroded beaches at the southern end of Ocean City (between 37th and 59th streets) and in Strathmere and Sea Isle City.The Ocean City portion of the project is a few weeks away from completion. The new sand is a welcome addition to a portion of the island that saw the ocean meet the bay during Superstorm Sandy in October 2012. But much of the new beach has the sandpapery feel of something a Jersey Shore lover might find on the inferior shores of Cape Hatteras or Cape Cod.So how did some parts of the beach end up with subpar sand? It has to do with the process that delivered the sand to the beach.A hopper dredge — essentially a ship equipped with trailing suction — vacuums sand from the ocean floor in a collection area about two miles off Corson’s Inlet into the ship’s hold. The ship then carries the sand to another pipe that leads to the area where sand is discharged on the beach. There, the mixture of sand and water, called a slurry, travels through a basket designed to screen out unwanted objects such as seashells.“We attempt to match the sand on the beach with the sand we pump ashore as closely as possible,” said Richard Pearsall, spokesman for the Army Corps.“Once we begin pumping, we, the state, and the contractor all monitor the project, including the quality of the sand,” Pearsall said in an email, adding that small pebbles and shells can slip through the screening process. “The contractor (Great Lakes Dredge and Dock Company of Illinois) is required to sample and analyze the sand periodically ensure that it’s suitable. It takes a while for those results to get to us, but if the problem is gross in nature we will pick it up with inspection.“We had a problem when the project first began, and that may be what’s showing up now,” Pearsall said. “The contractor addressed the problem then by moving to a different borrow area. The borrow area is big — 1,800 acres. Everyone involved in the project, including the contractor, is looking for the best sand possible. It’s easier to pump fine sand and easier on the equipment than coarser material. We will continue to monitor the situation.”Mike Dattilo, assistant to Mayor Jay Gillian, said previously that the city has had some success in filtering stone from the sand on the already replenished beaches with its own beach-raking equipment. He said the city would continue the same process on all beaches as the project moves forward.Work on the project began at 42nd Street in April, and the first phase of work (to 37th Street) included some of the roughest sand. Since then, the contractor has had mixed success in finding better quality for the beaches between 42nd Street and 54th Street. The final phase between 55th Street and 59th Street is underway.The replenished beaches in Strathmere are received the same quality sand from a different dredge.The Martinez family of Lemont, IL. plays bocce on the beach near 40th Street.Caroline Brauckman, 12, a summer resident of Ocean City, played a game of bocce last week in the middle of the beach near 40th Street with the Martinez family from Lemont, Ill.To avoid seashell shrapnel, “You have to go down really far or up close, and nobody’s really using this part of the beach” because of all the debris, she said.Sergio Martinez, 51, said the difference in sand quality from his previous visits is apparent, especially to his feet.“The sand was really fine before, almost Caribbean-like, and now it’s very choppy,” he said. “It’s good to have more beach, but it would be nice if it were more fine.”last_img read more

Food-to-go demand continues to recover, reports Greencore

first_imgGreencore has reported continued improvement in demand for food-to-go in the wake of the coronavirus crisis.The lockdown has had a devastating impact on sales of food-to-go products, with Greencore reporting sales down 63% year-on-year in April. The situation has steadily improved, however, with sales down 58% in May and 41% in June.And, in a trading update for its third quarter, covering the 13 weeks from 27 March to 26 June, the business reported food-to-go revenues were down 35% in July.Total reported group revenue was down 34.1% year on year to £240.6m in Q3, mainly due to the impact of Covid-19 on food-to-go. The company’s food-to-go revenue was down 50.6% to £123.8m in Q3.Greencore said it had worked closely with its customers as they reopen formats and channels. As a result, the business has restarted production at its Bow, Atherstone and Heathrow sites, which shut during lockdown, and extended production at its Northampton site.“Our group has traded resiliently, with our deep customer relationships strengthened further, and we are encouraged to see a sustained improvement in demand and category mix,” said Greencore chief executive officer Patrick Coveney.“We remain confident in the relevance and attractiveness of the food-to-go channels and categories that we serve. In addition, we are well positioned for new business opportunities and a return to growth as the pandemic subsides.”Greencore also announced it would be selling its interests in its molasses trading businesses to United Molasses Marketing (Ireland) Limited and United Molasses Marketing Limited.last_img read more

Stevie Wonder, The Roots, Dave Matthews, Usher, & More Play Concert For Peace & Justice [Video]

first_imgOn Friday night, an all-star group came together for the Concert for Peace and Justice held in Montgomery, Alabama. The night was hosted by the Equal Justice Initiative—an organization “committed to ending mass incarceration and excessive punishment in the United States, to challenging racial and economic injustice, and to protecting basic human rights for the most vulnerable people in American society”—and served as one of a handful of high-profile events that celebrate the grand openings of the National Memorial For Peace and Justice and The Legacy Museum in Montgomery.For the Concert for Peace and Justice, Equal Justice Initiative tapped a star-studded group of performers to come together and celebrate. While the event initially announced The Roots, Usher, Common, Brittany Howard (Alabama Shakes), and Kirk Franklin, other high-profile musicians, such as Stevie Wonder, Dave Matthews, and Jon Batiste, also made it out for the performance to perform truncated sets.As noted by, Wonder told the audience during his performance, which featured the iconic musician performing with The Roots on hit songs like “Higher Ground”, “Visions”, and “Another Star”:I come to you with a deep pain in my heart and a great love in my soul…. I dare you, I challenge you, to have a year of atonement. I dare you artists and you leaders of the world and this nation – including you, Mr. President – to see with your eyes that are open as clearly as my eyes that are blind… My hope is that we will come together as a united people, before it’s too late.Dave Matthews, a last-minute addition to the bill, dedicated his three-song set to John Henry James, a man who was lynched in Matthews’ hometown of Charlottesville, Virginia, in 1898, telling, “I didn’t know his name before, but I saw it at the memorial today.”The entire show was streamed on Tidal for both subscribers and non-subscribers. You can watch the performance below.<span data-mce-type=”bookmark” style=”display: inline-block; width: 0px; overflow: hidden; line-height: 0;” class=”mce_SELRES_start”></span>[H/T Rolling Stone]last_img read more

Brazil to Finance Food for Five African Countries

first_img Brazil will contribute more than 2 million dollars to a new program to purchase food for the poorest inhabitants of Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, and Senegal, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) announced in Rome on February 21. By Dialogo February 23, 2012 An international propaganda, and if the Brazilian Government is so full of money, why does it not finance hunger, unemployment, health and housing of 40 percent of its population, representing more 40,000,000. The program will be designed by the FAO and the World Food Programme (WFP) and is inspired by the “Zero Hunger” plan, launched in 2003 by then-president Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva, who succeeded in reducing malnutrition in Brazil by around 25 percent, enabling approximately 24 million people to move out of extreme poverty, according to Brazilian government data. Through the agreement, signed at FAO headquarters in Rome, Brazil will finance the purchase of 2,375,000 dollars worth of food produced by small-scale rural workers as well as its distribution to high-risk groups, including children and young people through school feeding programs, the United Nations agency stated. The agreement establishes that the FAO will receive 1,550,000 dollars to supervise the aspects related to production and the supply of seeds and fertilizer, and to increase the capacity of small farmers and associations of rural workers. The FAO, founded in 1945, has been headed since January of this year by Brazilian national José Graziano da Silva, who replaced Jacques Diouf, from Senegal, for the period 2012-2015. For its part, the WFP will receive 800,000 dollars to organize the purchases and distribute the food in schools and among the most vulnerable groups, the statement said. “Besides helping to supplement the diets of hungry people, the project is designed to strengthen local food markets, ultimately helping to improve food security, and preventing future food crises,” the FAO specified. last_img read more

Lion Air Group cuts salaries, bonuses but says no layoffs in sight

first_img“This situation has forced the company’s management to take steps to continue the airlines’ existence,” said Lion Air Group spokesman Danang Mandala Prihantoro in a statement, adding that group operations were only at 5 percent of the usual 1,000 flights a day.The company is also set to delay THR payments due in May for middle and high-income employees. The former category includes mechanics and cabin crew and the latter includes cockpit crew and management.Employees on minimum wages, such as cleaners, security guards, drivers and porters, will receive a reduced bonus for Idul Fitri with the remaining sum to be paid after the company’s financial situation recovers.Danang added that Lion Air Group had “not begun thinking about or conducting assessments” into terminating any of its 29,000 employees.Lion Air Group previously offered employees, including pilots, unpaid leave for May and June in a bid to reduce expenses.The pandemic has hit the aviation industry hard as people stay at home, forcing a slump in demand for air travel.Topics : Lion Air Group has cut salaries and delayed Idul Fitri bonus (THR) payments to employees while giving an assurance that no job terminations are in the pipeline as the airline grapples with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.The group said on Wednesday that the salaries of its 29,000 employees had been cut since March and would remain so for “an indeterminate period” to minimize costs.The group includes Lion Air, Wings Air and Batik Air, all of which resumed limited flights on May 10 after a two-week long ban on flights to contain the coronavirus spread.last_img read more

Hamilton on top as Mercedes dominate opening practice

first_imgIt was as if the lengthy delay created by the COVID-19 pandemic had no affect on the teams, cars and drivers other than Ferrari whose new SF91 machine was, as forecast, unable to match the pace set at the front by Mercedes.Ferrari plan to revise their car with updates for the Hungarian race in two weeks time following the second event in Austria next week.Four-time champion Sebastian Vettel, who is set to leave the outfit at the end of the year, struggled to 12th, two places behind team-mate Charles Leclerc, in the eerie surroundings of the fan-less circuit in the Styrian Alps where pit-stops were curiously controlled with all the mechanics in masks and protective gear.In mild weather conditions, with track temperatures measured at 22 degrees Celsius compared to 57 degrees for last year’s race, Mercedes had no cooling problems as Hamilton outpaced Bottas by three-tenths and was six-tenths clear of Verstappen.Sergio Perez was fifth in Racing Point’s ‘pink Mercedes’ ahead of Lando Norris in the second McLaren, Alex Albon in the other Red Bull and McLaren-bound Daniel Ricciardo of Renault. Kevin Magnussen was ninth for Haas.The session saw Verstappen recover from a spin at Turn One and Daniil Kvyat of Alpha Tauri run off at the final corner, causing Williams’ George Russell to take dramatic avoiding action while Romain Grosjean was stuck in the Haas garage with brake problems throughout the session.Topics : Defending six-time champion Lewis Hamilton topped the times ahead of Mercedes team-mate Valtteri Bottas as Formula One roared back at Friday’s opening practice at the belated and surreal season-opening Austrian Grand Prix.Three months after the cancellation of the original campaign starter in Australia and six months on from the last race meeting, it was business as usual for the dominant black arrows with Max Verstappen third for Red Bull ahead of McLaren’s Ferrari-bound Carlos Sainz.After a slow start on a damp surface at the Red Bull Ring, following overnight rain, Hamilton, sporting a new Black Lives Matter helmet to match his black race suit, was on the pace immediately in his W11 car of the same colour, repainted from silver this year to support equality and diversity. last_img read more

Young people staying at home for longer has sparked a 90 per cent increase in demand for construction of teenage retreats in homes

first_img207 Swann Road, Taringa.“They want to keep them at home as part of parental management so they can bring their friends over rather than going out.“The teenage retreat trend has definitely evolved.”Mr Tabrizi said children were staying at home longer because of the rising cost of living.Coorparoo’s Marianna and Joseph Miranda have listed their four-bedroom, two-bathroom home at 8 Jerome St for auction on November 9, complete with a teenage retreat spanning the entire downstairs level. 8 Jerome Street, Coorparoo has the perfect teen retreat.“Our client base tends to be upper middle class and basically we work on three living spaces per house — two on the ground floor and one on the top. The top floor tends to be the teen retreat,” Mr Tabrizi said.“Media rooms are becoming redundant and these spaces are being created.”Mr Tabrizi said the cross section of his clients with younger children requested retreats upstairs as play areas for their kids or a creative space.“As the dynamic changes and they become teenagers, the parents want to provide adequate space and an element for privacy,” he said. TOP TIPS FOR TEEN RETREATS: Make sure there is ample light, especially if the area will be used for studyInstall plenty of power points with USB ports so multiple devices can be connected forwork and playThe retreat should be close to or adjoining a bedroom, so it can function as an extensionof the bedroom.Consider the layout of the space — can the retreat be screened for privacy if required? Source: Valcon Homes Reuben Him, 22, at his teen retreat at his parents’ home in Taringa, Picture: (AAP Image/Claudia Baxter)YOUNG people staying at home for much longer has sparked a 90 per cent increase in demand for construction of teenage retreats in homes.The demand for kitted out retreats is skyrocketing with Brisbane builders saying parents are keen to do whatever it takes to keep an eye on their children well into their early adult years.Kevin Tabrizi, of Tabrizi Home Builders, said he had seen a 90 per cent increase compared to five years ago of buyers wanting teenage retreats in new builds, especially in the inner-city suburbs.center_img 8 Jerome Street, Coorparoo has the perfect teen retreat.Mrs Miranda said the downstairs retreat was half the size of their house.“Now that the kids are older and have moved out we need to sell,” she said.“We built the home and specifically wanted that area downstairs. We knew it was nice for them to have their friends over and as they grew older it was perfect.”The retreat includes three bedrooms, a large area to watch television, a powder room and an undercover deck out to the barbecue and saltwater pool area.The Mirandas have their own main bedroom retreat upstairs with a balcony and an ensuite.Place — Coorparoo agent Darren Bonehill is selling the Jerome St property and said parents desired privacy for not only themselves but also their children.Mr Bonehill said as property prices continued to rise, buyers wanted households that were cost effective.More from news02:37Purchasers snap up every residence in the $40 million Siarn Palm Beach North2 hours agoNew apartments released at idyllic retirement community Samford Grove Presented by Mirianna Miranda in her teen retreat. Picture: Annette Dew“Retreats are great entertainment hubs. Whether they are decked out with televisions, a games room or comfortable seating, there’s certainly the factor that parents can always keep a closer eye on their children, rather than worrying about them leaving the house,” he said.“Comfortable and safe environments are a key for the retreats.”Builder, Valcon Homes’ director Jason Doerr said demand for teen retreats had increased as more children opted to stay home into their early adult years.Mr Doerr said most of their two-level designs offered a retreat on the upper level,however one of the most popular choices for growing families was a home with a private living space for both parents and teenagers.“What we are finding is that growing families want both shared and private living zones so they can come together to share a meal or watch a movie downstairs, but then retreat to their own private sanctuary which is essentially an extension of their bedroom,” he said.“Retreats are a great idea because it can provide a functional space for study or an additionalstorage area, so bedrooms don’t become too cluttered.”Caroline Beck’s three-storey home, for sale at 207 Swann Rd, Taringa, is every child’s dream. Reuben, her now 22-year-old son’s retreat, is on the ground floor and includes three bedrooms, a lounge space and a recently-built second deck. The middle level separates Reuben from his parents, who admit they enjoy their own space and privacy.“As a mum we liked the kids at home, and wanted them here a bit longer,” Mrs Beck said.“We’ve been in this house throughout their teenage years. They have their own independence down there and there’s even a big projector on the wall to keep them occupied.”Mrs Beck said they added the deck to the retreat to enhance the private space for Reuben and his friends.There is also an insulated music room, which Mrs Beck’s eldest son, a composer, used before he moved away. She said Reuben, a volunteer with Red Frogs Australia, often held meetings in his retreat, and said the area was well used.last_img read more